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A glossary of terms important to IBM mainframe machines
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z misc.
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N40: RS/6000 notebook (model 7007) announced March 1994, withdrawn September 1995. Ran Nomadic AIX.
NALC: New Application License Charges. One of six z/OS Basic License methods.
Named Pipes: Program-to-program protocol originally developed within Microsoft’s OS/2 LAN Manager2 and has made its way into Windows Server operating systems. Acts as an alternative to NetBIOS and extends interprocess communications across the network. The Named Pipes API supports intra- and inter-machine process-to-process communications. Supported within IBM’s OS/2 too. See also Pipe.
Nanosecond: 1/1,000,000,000 of a second.
NAS: Network-Attached Storage. Typically, a disk drive subsystem attached via Ethernet to a network and using IP1 protocol to accept and process requests from multiple platforms. cf SAN.
NAT: Network Address Translation.
National Language Support: See NLS.
National Language Translation: Files to provide non-English output from IBM software such as z/VM.
Native mode: An operating system is said to be working in native mode if it is running directly on the hardware, rather than as a guest of another operating system (e.g., VM). Also used where software written for one hardware architecture is being run directly on the hardware, rather than under emulation on another hardware architecture.
NAU: Network Addressable Unit. Entities within an SNA network – SSCP, PU1, LU – that can send or receive requests and responses. An SNA network is made up of NAUs and the underlying path control network.
Navigator: Netscape Navigator. Formerly the name of Netscape’s web browser software, since renamed Netscape.
NBBS: Networking BroadBand Services. See Broadband Network Services.
NBC: See Network Buffer Cache.
NBS: National Bureau of Standards. The US standards body now known as the National Institute for Standards and Technology, or NIST.
NC: See Network Computer.
NCA: Network Configuration (sometimes Configurator) Application. NetView software, announced September 1991, which provides a menu-driven front end for collecting network configuration information for Info/Man and/or the Resource Object Data Manager. It can also display Info/Man data in a graphic form.
NCCF: Network Communications Control Facility. Mainframe resident software (a VTAM application) providing network operator control facilities in SNA (and BSC) networks. NCCF provides the environment for other products such as NPDA, NLDM, etc. Allows a degree of automation of network administration through the use of command lists. Now part of NetView where it goes under the name of Command Facility.
NCD: See Network Computing Devices.
NCO: Network Conversion Offering. A long forgotten pricing incentive for users converting a non-IBM or non-SNA network to an SNA 3720, 3725 or 3745 network. Also for users upgrading from early versions of NCP to the latest version.
NCP: Network Control Program (ACF/NCP). The operating system of communications controllers such as the 3745/6. Part of Communications Server. IBM software that provides communication controller support for single-domain, multiple-domain, and interconnected networks. Communication with the host is through VTAM via a channel interface, and communication with the terminals or another FEP is via TP lines. NCP off-loads certain line protocol and routing functions from the host CPU. See also SSP2, EP.
NCP Packet Switching Interface: See NPSI.
NCR: Originally the National Cash Register company, and later just NCR. Bought up by AT&T at the beginning of 1994, and renamed AT&T GIS (Global Information Systems). The silliness of the renaming (and of the name) took two years to sink in, and in January 1996, NCR became NCR again.
NCS: See Network Computing System.
NCSA: National Center for Supercomputing Applications, which is part of the University of Illinois. The NCSA software development team produced the Mosaic browser and the NCSA server programs.
NCSC: National Computer Security Center, part of the US National Security Agency (NSA). The NSA is a domestic version of the CIA.
NCU: Network Conversion Unit. IBMspeak for a protocol converter (e.g., the 3708).
NDIS: Network Driver Interface Specification. Protocol and MAC1-level interface standard (developed by 3Com and Microsoft) for connecting network operating systems to various LAN interfaces. Supports multiple protocol stacks concurrently. Opened up the OS/2 LAN Server to other vendors’ adapters, and is supported by IBM in OS/2 Communications Manager. NDIS has been through several revisions over the years and the current version is supported in the latest Windows operating system(s). See also ODI.
NDMP: Network Data Management Protocol. Standard for network-based backup of network-attached storage.
NDS: Novell (originally NetWare) Directory Services. Novell’s distributable directory system, based on X.500.
NET: See Network Equipment Technologies.
Net.Commerce: IBM system, announced May 1996, which is designed to enable merchants selling to consumers to create their own global market over the Internet. Based around IBM’s DB2 database, but with ODBC drivers, it allows the establishment of store fronts on the Web. The package includes SET, caching of recent pages, and tax and shipping charge calculator. Version 2.0 of Net.Commerce was split into three components, aimed at small, medium and large companies, in September 1997. Replaced by WebSphere Commerce Suite (WCS) February 2000.
Net.Commerce Consumer: An IBM browser plug-in that is triggered by a wake-up message from a merchant. Part of the Net.Commerce architecture that was replaced by WebSphere Commerce Suite (WCS) February 2000.
Net.Commerce Merchant Server: IBM server which supports consumer purchase, payment authorization, and collection from banks or credit-card issuers, and consumer-fulfillment notification. Part of the Net.Commerce architecture that was replaced by WebSphere Commerce Suite (WCS) February 2000.
Net.Commerce Payment Manager: An IBM software development environment that supports the development of SET-compliant applications. Delivered as an object framework, it implements SET payment and certificate message flows for consumer, merchant, and acquirer applications. Part of the Net.Commerce architecture that was replaced by WebSphere Commerce Suite (WCS) February 2000.
Net.Commerce Prop: Part of Version 2.0 of Net.Commerce. Designed for large companies. Announced September 1997. Net.Commerce was replaced by WebSphere Commerce Suite (WCS) February 2000.
Net.Commerce SmoothStart: Part of Version 2.0 of Net.Commerce. Designed for medium-sized companies. Announced September 1997. Net.Commerce was replaced by WebSphere Commerce Suite (WCS) February 2000.
Net.Commerce Start: Part of Version 2.0 of Net.Commerce. Designed for small companies. Announced September 1997. Net.Commerce was replaced by WebSphere Commerce Suite (WCS) February 2000.
Net.Data: IBM framework for making DB2 data available on the Internet. Includes Java, ODBC, Perl, REXX tools. Announced December 1996.
NetBEUI: NetBIOS Extended User Interface. Transport-level protocol of the TCP/IP variety originally developed by Microsoft. Supported by Microsoft LAN Manager2 and Novell NetWare.
NetBIOS: Extension of the PC BIOS which traps calls to the BIOS, and, where necessary, re-routes them to a LAN. Acts as an API between a program and a LAN adapter. Developed as the API for the PC Network program, but supported on the TRN (using a special program), and on a number of non-IBM systems.
NetCenter: NetCenter Graphic Network Monitor. Graphics workstation product which allows users to monitor SNA and non-SNA terminals and telecommunications from a PC-DOS graphics workstation. Although not required, it does interface to NetView/PC. Announced November 1989, after being acquired from telco US West. Much NetCenter functionality was merged into GMF in September 1991. Became part of the NetView base product December 1994, losing its identity completely.
NetDA: Network Design and Analysis. Network development and design tool for the design, analysis, and optimization of SNA subarea, SNA APPN, APPN HPR, and NCP frame relay networks. A z/VM version was withdrawn December 1988, but the z/OS version is still available, though the last release, Version 2.2, was first announced February 1991. Both require GDDM. See also NetDA/2 for the OS/2 version.
NetDA/2: Network Design and Analysis/2. NetDA for OS/2 workstations. Also includes a converter that takes input from NetDA in z/OS, as well as the Routing Table Generator (RTG). Announced May 1993 with the most recent version, 1.5, still available, though first announced June 1997.
NetDoor: OS/2 software distribution program (aka Network Door), vintage January 1993. Allows OS/2 users to load software from LAN servers. Sold as a tool to help with LAN software distribution and management. Allows users to replicate and synchronize application servers and define couplet domains for fault resilience and load balancing among servers. Withdrawn June 1996.
Netfinity: Currently one of three IBM lines of Intel-based servers. The other two are the eserver xSeries and NUMA-Q. But the trademarked name began life in November 1993 as NetFinity (note the capital F): OS/2 and Windows software for monitoring and managing LAN-attached PC assets. Comprised of NetFinity Services and NetFinity Manager – NetFinity Services are seven applications that reside on each PC/workstation, and NetFinity Manager comprises four applications that reside on the LAN administrator’s system, allowing initiation and control of the remote systems. Facilities include: gathering and reporting all configuration and asset information; displays of line graphs; real-time monitors for system resources; security management; and storage and retrieval of system and user data for auditing and asset management. February 1996, NetFinity was rechristened PC SystemView Manager and Services, May 1996 it became TME 10 NetFinity Manager and Services, September 1997 IBM Netfinity Manager and Client Services for Netfinity (note the lower-case f), April 2000 IBM Netfinity Director with UM Services, and currently, as of January 2001, IBM Director with UM Services.
Netfinity Director: See Netfinity.
Netiquette: Code of conduct for use on the Internet. Like most things on the Internet, nobody manages or documents it, so you just have to pick it up as you go along. One or two well-known items of netiquette: don’t sell anything too overtly (posting ads to hundreds of newsgroups is definitely frowned upon); don’t type in CAPITAL LETTERS – that’s considered shouting; and don’t say anything so controversial or so insulting that even a smiley emoticon won’t get you out of trouble.
NETPARS: NETwork Performance Analysis and Reporting System. Mainframe batch program for analyzing performance data collected by NPA or NPM. Withdrawn September 1988.
NetPC: A slimmed down version of the PC from Microsoft, aimed at the same general market as the Network Computer (NC). Announced October 1996, never sold and disappeared from general conversation within two years.
NetQuestion: Replaced by Text Search.
NetReview: IBM network consultancy service announced mid 1991. Part of IBM’s drive to diversify away from straight box-shifting. Quietly disappeared and can only be found now in IBM’s trademark list.
Netscape: Netscape Communications Corporation and their web browser software formerly known as Navigator. Formerly Mosaic Communications Corporation. Set up in April 1994 by Dr James Clark and Marc Andreessen (creator of the NCSA Mosaic program) to market their version of Mosaic, known as Netscape or Mozilla. One of the few instances in the IT industry when a start-up company successfully challenged the might of an established industry leader like Microsoft. For a time, anyway. IE1 has taken over most of the browser market share in recent years. AOL purchased Netscape (the company) in 1999.
Net Search Extender: A full-text search tool within z/OS DB2 UDB. A member of the DB2 UDB Extender family, alongside DB2 Text Extender. It searches data without locking database tables and uses in-memory database technology. See also DB2 Extenders.
NetServer: See AS/400 NetServer.
NetSP: Network Security Program. AIX1, PC-DOS, OS/2 security software (vintage November 1993) which provides distributed authentication, and key distribution. Works with RACF and does not use the DES algorithm, which allows IBM to sell it worldwide. IBM touted the NetSP Secured Network Gateway on an eserver pSeries as enabling corporate users to set up a firewall1 between the corporate systems and the cyberpirates, propeller heads, and other socially undesirable types who infest the Internet. Replaced November 1997 by IBM Global Sign-On for AIX, which went though a couple of name changes before becoming Tivoli SecureWay Global Sign-On.
NetSpool: AFP software. Announced July 1995 as a feature of PSF/MVS Version 2.2. Today, it is part of Infoprint Server for z/OS, an optional, separately priced feature of z/OS. NetSpool put VTAM application output on the JESx spool, allows multiple VTAM applications to share a single multi-function printer, allows a single VTAM application to broadcast output with the same or different output formats to multiple distributed printers, and enables VTAM applications to use AFP without program changes.
NetTAPE: Network Tape Access and Control System for AIX. Software for managing tape operations and tape access in networks of eserver pSeries workstations and servers. A companion product was the NetTAPE Tape Library Connection (TLC). Announced February 1996 and withdrawn May 1999.
NetView®: SNA network management product. Announced mid 1986. Although it started off life as a rather half-hearted bundling of various mainframe-centric network management products (including NCCF, NLDM, NPDA, VNCA, and NMPF), by mid 1995 it had turned into a fully fledged distributed network management system, with a strong focus on distributed Unix boxes as network management workstations. Replaced by Tivoli NetView and Tivoli NetView for z/OS. Version 2.3 of NetView for VM/ESA, announced May 1992, is still supported under z/VM and has not been replaced by a Tivoli product.
NetView/6000: Former name of NetView for AIX.
NetView/PC: Multi-tasking personal computer subsystem (software + adapter), which collects and sends information upstream to the host from TRN, voice networks, and/or non-SNA systems. In effect it’s a gateway to pass network management between two disparate networks (typically an SNA network and an OSI network). Withdrawn December 1997.
NetView Access Services: An z/OS and z/VM session manager enabling users to run multiple sessions and hot-key between them. The name is a bit of a misnomer because the product has precious little to do with NetView proper. Announced June 1987. Replaced by Tivoli NetView Access Services.
NetView AS: See Tivoli NetView Access Services.
NetView AutoBridge/MVS: Withdrawn June 1996 and repackaged as a feature of Info/Man.
NetView Bridge: Tool which allows users to write NetView applications for accessing and updating external databases – notably IBM’s Info/Man database. Part of Tivoli NetView for z/OS.
NetView Distribution Manager: See NetView DM.
NetView DM: NetView Distribution Manager. Software on a number of platforms which enables centralized control of data and software distribution among processors in an SNA network – change logging, problem tracking, and change scheduling. Its DLU (Download Utility) component distributes software (including new operating systems) to networked machines. Originally an MVS and MVS/XA product, but announced for OS/2 in March 1991, and RS/6000 in February 1994. Replaced the DSX product. Replaced by Tivoli NetView Distribution Manager. See also DCMF, SPMF.
NetView Extra: Set of system integration services (vintage September 1991) for installation and support of NetView. Particularly useful to people wanting to manage multi-vendor networks. Withdrawn January 1996.
NetView File Transfer Program: z/OS, z/VM and VSE/ESA high performance VTAM utility for bulk data transfer among mainframe and AS/400 systems in an SNA network. A more sophisticated version of FTP1. Capability of communicating with any system supporting OSI/FTAM was announced in October 1991. VSE/ESA and z/VM versions withdrawn December 1997. z/OS, OS/2, AIX and OS/400 versions continued after renaming to Tivoli NetView File Transfer Program.
NetView for AIX: Version of NetView (announced January 1992 under the name NetView/6000) which runs on an RS/6000 workstation. Supports TCP/IP and SNMP, has lots of interfaces to the 6611 Network Processor, and includes support for dynamic network reconfiguration, and fault and performance management. Enables an AIX1 machine to run as a generalized network management workstation using SNMP and with a Motif front end. Renamed Tivoli Netview. See also LAN Management Utilities.
NetView for OS/2: September 1994 re-naming and re-vamp of LAN NetView. Implements SNMP, and can monitor OS/2, LAN Server, LAN Requester, DOS, NetWare, and Macintosh, and provides a single view of LAN resources. Withdrawn July 1997.
NetView for OS/390: Replaced by Tivoli NetView for z/OS.
NetView for VM/ESA: Version 2.3 of NetView for VM/ESA, announced May 1992, is still supported under z/VM and has not been replaced by a Tivoli product. See NetView.
NetView for Windows: Low-end SNMP network management software announced June 1994. Provides fault, configuration, and performance management for hubs, bridges, routers, and switches. Mostly written by Network Managers Inc, not IBM. Replaced and/or renamed repeatedly: Nways Manager for Windows, Nways Workgroup Manager for Windows NT, Nways Workgroup Manager and finally Nways Manager for AIX, which was withdrawn October 2000.
NetView FTP: NetView File Transfer Program.
NetView Graphic Monitor Facility: See GMF.
NetView MultiSystem Manager: NetView z/OS software which provides centralized control of LAN resources. Announced September 1993. Withdrawn September 2000 after becoming a part of Tivoli NetView for z/OS.
NetView Network Planner/2: OS/2 network planning software. Provides GUI tools and interfaces to NetView’s Resource Object Data Manager. Announced December 1993, withdrawn September 1997.
NetView NP/2: See NetView Network Planner/2.
NetView Performance Monitor: z/OS and z/VM software (once known as Network Performance Monitor) which uses VTAM and, where appropriate NCP, to monitor the performance (data flow, response times, etc) of SNA and TRN networks. Data is transferred to the mainframe for analysis. Replaced NPA. Replaced by Tivoli NetView Performance Monitor (NPM). See also Tivoli NetView Performance Monitor for TCP/IP.
NetView Performance Monitor for TCP/IP: Replaced by Tivoli NetView Performance Monitor for TCP/IP.
NetView PM: See NetView Performance Monitor.
NetView Session Monitor: See NLDM.
NetView Voice Network Design: OS/2 software which helps users design voice networks and monitor the cost effectiveness of existing configurations. Part of VNAS. Withdrawn March 1992.
NetVista: IBM’s entire line of desktop workstations. Even Aptiva has been renamed NetVista. Intellistation and Unix-based workstations remain outside of the NetVista line.
NetWare: LAN software for PCs from Novell. NetWare is a complete server/client network operating system for LAN-connected PCs. Originally built for the PC-DOS environment where it was introduced in 1983, it now consists of a dedicated server which runs native NetWare, and software in client workstations running under Windows, PC-DOS or OS/2. NetWare was immensely successful in the PC-DOS environment where it became a de facto standard. But OS/2 was the first hint of things to come: a feeling of being redundant since the standard IBM operating software (notably LAN Server) provided much of the NetWare functionality. Novell fought back with NetWare release 4.11 (August 1996) adding essential Internet/intranet support and the well-received NetWare Directory Services. Unfortunately, in preparation for Year 2000, many large organizations were standardizing the desktop and everything behind it, which meant Microsoft everything. What Windows NT 4.0 Server didn’t get, Windows 2000 Server did, especially with its Active Directory, and then came Windows 2002 Server, etc.
Network Authentication Service: The IBM implementation of the MIT Kerberos V5 Release 1.1 in AIX.
Network Buffer Cache: An area allocated by AIX1 where applications can locally store data such as Web content to save reloading off the Internet for each reuse. See also Fast Response Cache Architecture.
Network Computer: Low-cost Web-surfer devices with no disk drives and programs written in Sun’s Java language. Initiated by Oracle, but IBM, Apple, Sun, and others have either announced or delivered similar products. The NC was positioned as the thin client, an antidote to PC-based client/server systems that have run desperately over budget. NCs, connected to large servers via an intranet, have all the management advantages of 3270 terminals and all the GUI benefits of a PC. Reports of the consequent death of the PC, however, were exaggerated and by 1998 it was the NC that was marginalized. See Network Station.
Network Computing Devices: Company to which IBM passed all of its X-Terminal business over in early 1996. Mid 1996 Network Computing won a contract with IBM to develop and build IBM’s first essay at a Network Computer.
Network Computing System: A standards-based set of tools in AIX for distributing computer processing tasks across resources in either a network or several interconnected networks. An implementation of the Network Computing Architecture.
Network controller: A concentrator and protocol converter, such as the 3710, that allows the use of non-SNA devices with an SNA host processor.
Network Door: See NetDoor.
Network dynamics: A rather nebulous concept which IBM used to talk about in relation to SNA evolution. It seems to comprise APPN, peer-to-peer networking, dynamic update of network configuration, etc. The Networking Blueprint seems to include most of what was promised by Network dynamics.
Network Equipment Technologies: US telecomms company specializing in digital network exchanges. IBM set up a deal with NET in 1987 which allowed IBM to sell NET products (including its Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) products) worldwide to its mainframe customers, and to use NET’s proprietary protocols. By late 1989 about 25% of NET’s income originated from IBM. See 9378/9, IDNX.
Network File System: See NFS.
Networking Blueprint: IBM’s master plan for networking announced in March 1992. The announcement formally made APPN the key protocol in SNA networks, and confirmed that future SNA networks would be able to support a wide variety of IBM, other proprietary, and open protocols. See also CTS, MPTN.
Networking Services/2: See SAA Networking Services/2.
Networking Services/DOS: PC-DOS/Windows product which enables applications on PC-DOS workstations to communicate with other platforms supporting APPC. Supports CPI-C. Announced March 1992. Replaced September 1994 by APPC Networking Services for Windows, then eNetwork Personal Communications, SecureWay Personal Communications, and, most recently, Host Access Client Package for Multiplatform.
Network Interface Takeover: An AIX option allowing the configuration of multiple network adapters, allowing one or more to be designated as a backup. Supported adapters include IBM 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI adapter, Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI adapter and 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI adapter. If any hardware failure (adapter or cable) occurs, the next alternate adapter immediately takes over. This gives the appearance of one network interface to the user and continues to keep network traffic moving with minimal delay.
Network node: An APPN node which provides a full set of APPN functions, such as routing between sessions, route selection, and directory services. IBM has published the spec of the network node as part of its attempt to turn APPN into a public standard, and by early 1993, the first non-IBM implementations were available.
Network OLE: The first networked version of OLE/COM, which appeared shortly before DCOM.
Network Operating System: A generic term for software that enables workstations on a LAN to internetwork, usually via specialized servers, in a (fairly) transparent way; e.g., to access files, printers, and other resources across a network. The first really successful LAN operating system within the PC environment was Novell’s NetWare. Today, Windows Server operating systems include a NOS.
Network Performance Monitor: Software now called NetView Performance Monitor.
Network Printer: Family of printers introduced June 1996 shortly after IBM’s non-competition agreement with Lexmark ended. The family comprised several successive models of 24, 17, and 12 pages per minute black and white printers (4324, 4317, 4312) and one series of color printers (4303). All have since been withdrawn or replaced.
Network Print Facility: See NPF.
Network Security Auditor: Software found in SecureWay Firewall that is used to scan a list of hosts and report potential security vulnerabilities for each system.
Network Server Description: An OS/400 configuration file and software to implement the configuration, including a set of commands. Used to control guest operating systems, including Linux partitions. NWSD can start and stop the guest operating system and define the operating environment, including configuration of iSeries 400 disk and removable media devices.
Network Services for DOS: PC-DOS software which provides LU6.2 on a PC. Only suitable for use as a requester/client, not a server. Obsolete.
Network Station: IBM’s first crack at the Network Computer (intranet) market. Manufactured jointly with Network Computing Devices, the machine contains a Java virtual machine, and is available for multiple servers (zSeries 900, iSeries 400, pSeries, OS/2, Unix, Windows). Users of the 8361 have personal data control, but no local data storage. Announced October 1996. See also 8361, 8362, 8363, 8364.
Network Station Browser: IBM web browser software developed for the Network Computer/Network Station (thin client) market. Announced March 1997. Replaced by IBM Navio NC Navigator which was later integrated into NetVista Thin Client Manager.
Network Station Manager: IBM software which allows users to remotely configure any number of Network Computers from a single location. Announced with the Network Station October 1996. Replaced by NetVista Thin Client Manager.
Network Storage Manager: See 3466.
Network Tape Access and Control System: See NetTAPE.
Network Trusted Computing Base: See NTCB.
Neural Network Utility: Artificial intelligence software running under OS/400, AIX1, Windows and OS/2. Can be used to identify patterns and relationships in data – e.g., to look through an iSeries 400 database to check credit worthiness or some such. Replaced by Intelligent Miner November 1997.
NewOrg: Standards body, sponsored by HP, IBM, and Sun Microsystems. Set up late 1993 (after the demise of UII) to establish standards in open systems for middleware and distributed computing. Little more than a year later, NewOrg was gone, too.
New World: IBMspeak for an application system that uses cooperative processing, client/server technology, and/or programmable workstations – i.e., just about any system that isn’t based on good old dumb terminals. See also Legacy System.
Next Generation Internet: See NGI.
NeXTStep: Graphical workstation interface at one time offered by IBM for use on AIX (where it’s also known as the AIX Graphic User Environment) and high-end PS/2 workstations. Licensed by IBM from NeXT, the workstation software company set up by Steve Jobs, the man who started Apple. However, IBM did not promote NeXTStep with any real enthusiasm or commitment, and by early 1992 publicly admitted that it had dropped the thing.
NF2: Non First Normal Form. Extension to the relational database architecture which allows for nested tables. NF2 is claimed to simplify and speed up relational processing. See AIM1.
NFS: Network File System. Set of Unix protocols (originally developed by Sun Microsystems) for file sharing across a LAN. Built on top of Ethernet and TCP/IP, and has become a de facto standard in the Unix environment. IBM has at various times marketed the Sun implementation for z/OS, z/VM, System/88, RT PC, and eserver pSeries. AIX1 incorporates NFS support. Most significantly for the mainframe user, IBM announced in September 1990 that DFSMSdfp would be using NFS to distribute data to workstations from z/OS mainframes. Today, NFS is part of AIX, Linux, z/OS Unix System Services, z/VM OpenExtension and, of course, non-IBM Unix implementations.
NFS Client: New to z/VM, NFS Client is integrated into both CMS1 and the priced, optional TCP/IP Feature of z/VM.
NGI: Next Generation Internet. US government-sponsored program that has completed its work, even though it failed to provide terabit per second networking. That failure has been passed on as a goal to the government’s Large Scale Networking (LSN) Coordinating Group. See also Internet2, TEN-34.
NGMF: NetView Graphic Performance Facility. Part of Tivoli NetView for z/OS which provides a SystemView-compliant, object-oriented, OS/2 interface to network management functions. GMF digests and displays NetView information in a graphical form. For the traditionalist for whom the user-friendly screens are too difficult, there’s built-in 3270 emulation. See also NetCenter.
NIA: Network Interface Adapter. Obsolete IBM protocol converter allowing SDLC1 products to attach through an X.25 network to an SNA host system. Replaced by QLLC.
NIAF/2: NetView Installation and Administration Facility/2. OS/2 facility for administering NetView. A function within NetView that was withdrawn beginning with Tivoli NetView for OS/390 Release 3 announced November 1999.
NIB: Node Initialization Block. A control block found in VTAM, used to indicate how communication requests on a session are to be handled by VTAM.
Nibble: Half a byte – i.e., 4 bits.
NIC1: Numerically Intensive Computing. Poshspeak for number-crunching. See Vector, Supercomputer.
NIC2: Network Interface Card. An interface card installed in a workstation or server to provide a connection to a LAN.
NIM: AIX Network Install Manager.
NIS: AIX Network Information Services Server Function.
N-ISDN: Narrow-ISDN (to distinguish it from Broadband ISDN). ISDN by any other name.
NIST: National Institute for Standards and Technology. US standards body formerly known as the National Bureau of Standards – NBS.
NIU1: Network Interface Unit.
NIU2: Non-IBM User. IBMspeak for those who have not yet learned the wisdom of buying IBM equipment, thereby denying themselves, their users, and their IBM salesman the joys of a more fulfilled way of life.
NJE: Network Job Entry. JES facility enabling multiple hosts to share job queues and system spools.
NLDM: Network Logical Data Manager (aka NetView Session Monitor). NCCF application which collects SNA session-related information and makes it available to NCCF operators. Useful in helping operators to detect network faults not explicitly picked up by other network management tools. Now part of Tivoli NetView for z/OS network management software, where it’s called Session Monitor.
NLM: NetWare Loadable Module. Software that can be loaded alongside Novell’s NetWare network operating system, to add function to a network server. Lotus Notes is available as an NLM, for example.
NLS: National Language Support. Ability of a product to be provide non-English language interaction with its users, selectable by the customer either during installation and/or on a per-user basis.
NMF: Network Management Forum. A standards body set up in 1988 to develop standards for Open Network Management (ONM). IBM is a member. Changed its name to the TeleManagement Forum in the late 1990s.
NMP: Network Management Protocol. AT&T’s protocol for the UNMA network management architecture. Conforms to OSI and specifies layers 4-7.
NMPF: Network Management Productivity Facility. Originally an IBM Program Offering. Became a component of Tivoli NetView for z/OS in 1986.
NMVT: Network Management Vector Transport. The SNA message type which carries network management data. Replaces RECFMS.
NNI: Network-to-Network Interface. The interface between switches in an ATM2 network.
NNTP: Network News Transfer Protocol. An Internet protocol for the distribution, retrieval, and posting of news articles that are stored in a central database known as a News Server.
NNU: See Neural Network Utility.
Nomadic AIX: Version of AIX1 for portable computers such as the N40. Withdrawn May 1996.
Non-automatic profile: A tape volume profile that RACF only deletes when an RDELETE command is issued. The profile must have been created with an RDEFINE command or when tape dataset protection was not active.
Nonce: A randomly-generated value to protect against hackers using replay techniques.
Non-Data Sharing Mode: RACF sysplex communication without using the Coupling Facility.
Non-spinning disk: Another name for SSD1 which started coming into currency early 1995.
Non-trivial: Generic term, widely used in IBMspeak, to mean a wide variety of things, including serious (z/OS is for non-trivial applications), difficult (we have a non-trivial problem here), and even heavy (IBM once described a particularly weighty IBM catalog by saying this is a non-trivial manual).
NOS: See Network Operating System.
NOSP: Network Operations Support Program. Network control program now superseded by NCCF.
NOSS: National Office Support System. The name for IBM UK’s formerly PROFS-based internal office system.
Notes: Lotus groupware product which IBM took on (June 1991) as an alternative to, and eventually a replacement for, the much delayed OfficeVision/2 LAN Series product. An additional (possibly the primary) benefit was that by giving succor to one of Microsoft’s key rivals, IBM was able to stick the knife firmly into Microsoft. After IBM bought Lotus, Notes became IBM’s preferred groupware and e-mail system. Release 4.5 (1996) provided close integration with Windows NT and Internet. Release 5 (1999) added mobile support. See also Domino.
Notes Designer for Domino: An integrated development environment based on a distributed, document-oriented database that combines information storage with communications, collaboration, and workflow. The applications developed are portable across Sun Solaris, Windows, HP-UX, AIX1, OS/2, and Novell’s NetWare platforms. From Lotus. Replaced by Release 5 (R5) of Domino Designer.
Notes InterConnect: See InterConnect for Lotus Notes.
NotesView: Graphical management tool from Lotus for controlling and monitoring Notes networks. Withdrawn December 1998, with most functionality available through Domino’s Admin client.
Novell: The company which produces and sells NetWare. Over the years it has spent much of its resources acquiring, enhancing then getting rid of major technologies, WordPerfect and Unix being prime examples. See also USL, DR-DOS.
Novell-DOS: Re-naming of DR-DOS.
NPA: Network Performance Analyzer. Performance monitor, now superseded by NPM.
NPDA: Network Problem Determination Application. Mainframe software providing network error analysis. Collects errors reported by communications controllers, modems, lines, cluster controllers, control units, and terminals, and organizes and displays error statistics. NPDA is now part of Tivoli NetView for z/OS, where it’s called Hardware Monitor.
NPF: TCP/IP Network Print Facility. A feature of z/OS that routes VTAM, JES2, or JES3 printer output to printers in a TCP/IP network.
NPM: See Tivoli NetView Performance Monitor.
NPM/IP: See Tivoli NetView Performance Monitor for TCP/IP.
NPSI: X.25 NCP Packet Switching Interface. NCP process providing FEP/mainframe support of X.25 networks, by converting SNA flows into X.25 frames, thereby allowing non-SNA applications and devices to interact transparently with SNA hosts. Works with PCNE1, DATE, GATE and other variants. Operates in 3720 and 3745 communication controllers, and provides support for SNA and non-SNA devices in the z/OS, z/VM and VSE/ESA environments. NPSI performance has been frequently criticized by a less than enthusiastic user base.
NPT: Non-Programmable Terminal. IBMspeak for dumb(ish) terminals such as the 3270 and 5520 families. IBM also uses the terms dependent workstation, NWS, and MFI with the same meaning. There is a version of the SAA user interface (CUA1) for NPT workstations.
NQS: Network Queuing System. A Unix batch processing management system. See also NQS/MVS.
NQS/MVS: Network Queuing System/MVS. z/OS implementation of the Unix NQS system. It runs as a server on an z/OS system, and allows Unix users to submit, monitor, and control batch applications on z/OS systems. Announced June 1992. Withdrawn November 1997.
NRF: Network Routing Facility. NCP facility allowing LUs in different nodes to converse through an FEP without a host node LU being involved. Enables users to consolidate networks without soaking up host CPU cycles.
NRZI: Non-Return to Zero Inverted. A type of data encoding used between SDLC1 modems, and (sometimes) to record data on tapes and disks.
ns: See Nanosecond.
NS/2: See SAA Networking Services/2.
NS/DOS: See Network Services for DOS.
NSA: National Security Agency. A US government domestic equivalent of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
NSAPI: Netscape Server API. An interface provided on Netscape HTTP servers which allows other processes to be invoked by the browser client. A more efficient (and proprietary) alternative to CGI.
NSF: Network Supervisory Function. Network management control for X.25 networks using XI. Provides dynamic control and diagnosis of XI resources.
NSI: Non-SNA Interconnection. FEP (3720, 3745) software enabling BSC terminals to work over an SNA backbone network.
NT1: See Windows NT.
NT2: Node Type. Synonymous with Physical Unit (PU1).
NTCB: Network Trusted Computing Base. All security components within a network system.
NTFS: NT File System. The most robust file system available on Windows NT/2000/XP. cf. FAT, FAT32.
NTO: Network Terminal Option. Protocol converter between SNA and ASCII in the 37xx’s NCP.
NTP: New Technology Prototype or New Tape Product. IBM code name for a new magnetic tape system which IBM started briefing customers about in mid 1994, and which was formally announced April 1995 as the 3590 and Magstar.
NTRI: NCP Token Ring Interconnect/Interface. Feature of NCP allowing the FEP to connect to a TRN LAN. Software component of FEP Token Ring support.
NTSA: Network Technical Support Alliance. Group set up by 17 vendors (including IBM, HP, and Cisco) to develop methods of problem resolution in multivendor networks. Merged with TSANet in 1995, adopting the TSANet name.
NTune: Shorthand for NTuneMON/NTuneNCP.
NTuneMON: A software monitor for 37xx communication controllers (FEP). Acts as an NCP on-line analysis, performance and diagnostic aid, and can accumulate information from NCP regarding: virtual routes, transmission groups, SNI, Network Names Table, Token Ring resources, Ethernet subsystems, Internet Protocol (IP1), and NCP buffers and pool utilization. Beginning June 2000, NTuneMON Version 3.1 includes NTuneNCP as part of the base product.
NTuneNCP: On-line interactive tuning utility for NCP that also includes a channel I/O trace. NTuneNCP is now being shipped as an included feature of both NCP and NTuneMON.
Null modem: A connection that is the equivalent of two modems wired back-to-back. Usually using a cable where several pins are cross wired from one end to the other, most notably so that the Send pair on one end of the cable is the Receiver pair on the other.
NUMA: Non-Uniform Memory Architecture.
NUMA-Q: NUMA-Q 2000. High end Intel-based NUMA server acquired by IBM in its merger with Sequent that began July 1999. When the eserver xSeries was announced October 3, 2000, it included a NUMA system (xSeries 430) so it is reasonable to assume that all future models will be part of the xSeries line. Can run ptx, Linux and most mainframe operating systems.
NuOffice: IBM Windows NT software based on Salutation Manager. Provides local and remote access to enabled office devices such as copiers, faxes or scanners from a Domino Server or remotely. Initially launched in May 1997 in Japan only, then announced worldwide in June 1999.
NvAS: See Tivoli NetView Access Services.
NvDM: See Tivoli NetView Distribution Manager.
NVS: Non-Volatile Storage. Computer memory that retains its contents when the electricity is turned off. In general used to refer to semiconductor memory with backup batteries in case of power failures. The 3990-3 controller uses NVS as part of the Fast Write feature. There once was a time when all computer memory was NVS: it was called core memory and was made with little magnets with holes in the middle through which wire was threaded.
N-way performance ratio: Generic term for describing the performance of a Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) system. It’s calculated as the performance of the SMP system divided by the performance of the same system with one engine running the same workload. Thus, if a 6-engine SMP system handles 500 tps and the single processor handles 100 tps, the N-way performance ratio is 5. The ratio is always less than N, because the interconnection of the engines causes an overhead which increases exponentially with the number of processors. Above ten engines, the overhead is unacceptably high.
Nways: Brand-name of IBM’s family of multiprotocol products first announced June 1994. Includes WAN switches, wiring concentrator, software to link the 8260 to the mainframe, the 2210, 2217, and 6611 routers, 8282 concentrator, 8238 and 8260 hubs, and various other things. There are interfaces for X.25, HDLC, ISDN, Frame Relay, continuous link for speech and video, and management tools for Windows environments. Most Nways hardware and software has been withdrawn over the years, but some still remains.
Nways 950: Communication controller announced July 1995, also known as the 3746-950. Effectively it’s a stand-alone 3746-900 (see 3745/6) but with a key difference – it doesn’t need NCP (which means it can’t support SNA properly). Widely slated by critics when it first emerged for being neither fish nor fowl – it pretended to be an old fashioned SNA controller, but it couldn’t run subarea SNA, and although it could be used as a bridge/router, it was priced at SNA controller levels.
Nways Campus Manager: Network management software for campus networks, whether they be across the grounds of an academic institution or a research park, or multiple head office buildings of a major corporation. Nways Campus Manager for AIX was announced September 1996 as a replacement for Nways Campus Manager LAN for AIX, Intelligent Hub Manager for AIX, Intelligent Hub Manager Entry for AIX, IBM AIX Router and Bridge Manager/6000, LAN Network Manager for AIX, and all Nways ATM features delivered with SystemView. Nways Campus Manager ATM for AIX was replaced October 1997 by IBM Nways Manager for AIX which was withdrawn October 2000. See Nways.
Nways LAN Remote Monitor: Windows, AIX1 and HP-UX management software for RMON-compliant agents over Token Ring or Ethernet LANs.
Nways Manager: Network management software. IBM Nways Manager for AIX replaced Nways Campus Manager ATM for AIX October 1997. withdrawn October 2000. Nways Manager for Windows was replaced by Nways Workgroup Manager for Windows NT, which was replaced by the IBM Nways Manager for AIX withdrawn October 2000.
NWS: Non-programmable WorkStation. At one time IBMspeak for dumb terminal. Replaced by NPT.