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A glossary of terms important to IBM mainframe machines
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I/O: Input/output. Refers to the transmission of data into or out of a processor’s memory. This would include communication lines and peripherals such as disk drives. This would not include internal transfers within the processor, such as from one level of cache to another, or the loading of instructions from memory into the processor for execution.
IAA: Insurance Application Architecture. An architecture designed by IBM in conjunction with some major European insurance companies. Defines application specific features (data models, function models, communications interface, etc) for the European insurance industry.
IAX: Image processing software.
IBA: Integrated Banking Applications. Applications software from Hogan Systems to which IBM had exclusive marketing rights. Early 1994 the rights were transferred back to Hogan.
IBM: International Business Machines.
IBM/COMPLETE: Short-lived IBM packaging of hardware, software, and services (introduced in February 1993) which aimed to provide a solution to a specific problem. The novelty was in the pricing; the customer and IBM sat down and worked out the anticipated business benefit in cash terms. The customer didn’t pay for the products in the package – the price was based on the business benefit, and the customer paid only when that benefit was delivered. First offerings were storage and batch window management.
IBM_Planetwide: Name of the Web search robot IBM used to use to build search engines, back in the days when it was in that business.
IBM COBOL: The current mainframe COBOL compilers. IBM COBOL for VSE/ESA has remained constant in name, but IBM COBOL for MVS and VM keeps getting a new name as the operating systems get new names. IBM COBOL for z/OS & z/VM being the current incarnation.
IBMLink: An on-line service for customers that was built around product-related information systems previously used solely by IBM staff. Justified within IBM, and even offered free in some countries, as a way to reduce the time spent by IBM staff answering customer marketing and technical questions. And often the justification within organizations for getting a communications link to IBM. Key areas included a complete set of announcement letters (going as far back as 1983), education and publications catalog, and a software service database, including both bug reports and general technical Q&A. Hardware and software configurators were also added over the years. In some countries, it could also be used as an e-mail system, both to/from IBM and, if you knew how, with other customers. Unveiled in the late 1980s as a z/VM3270-based system, gradually converted to a Web-based system in the late 1990s. Then, at the turn of the century, things got confusing for a short time. ibmlink.com was suddenly occupied by some weird Yahoo! style portal with very little content, succeeding solely in confusing people looking for the real IBMLink (at ibmlink.ibm.com). Thankfully, it suffered an early death.
IBS/MIGRATOR: Source code translator from z/OS and VSE/ESA COBOL, CICS, batch, JCL and SQL to the iSeries 400. There is also a subset called IBS/MIGRATOR-JCL. From IBS Conversions, Inc. Announced February 1993, but IBM stopped marketing it May 1996.
IBU: Independent Business Unit. IBMspeak for a small unit within an organization that acts as an autonomous unit.
IC/1: Info Center/1. APL system providing an Information Center environment. Incorporates ADRS II, APLDI II, FPS II. Replaced September 1990 by the IC/E (Info Center/Enhanced) feature of AS1. Version 4.2 was supposed to be the last release of AS to include IC/E. Instead, it was IBM’s last release of the product. It was sold to ASTRAC in 1999, who seems committed to long term IC/E (or ICE as they like to call it) support and enhancement.
IC1: Industrial Computer.
IC-3: Internal Coupling Channel.
IC5: Integrated Circuit. A circuit board on a chip. IBM was arguably the first computer company in the world to use ICs, on the System/360 CPU. Only a few transistors and associated components, but it was a first.
ICA: Integrated Communication Adapter. A communication adapter that is integrated into a host processor. Very appealing when it was first introduced in small mainframes like the 4331, as it meant external communications was suddenly very affordable because you did not have to buy an FEP. Severely limited, in terms of number of ports, and could not be expanded, forcing the purchase of an FEP.
ICC: IBM Credit Corporation. For many years, IBM’s in-house leasing operation. Closely allied to IBM sales and marketing operations, and was able to offer highly competitive services – flexible leases, bundled services, discounts, etc. Renamed IBM Global Financing.
ICCF: Interactive Computing and Control Facility. VSE’s interactive facility. An ISPF/PDF wannabe. Little-liked; most VSE users preferred to use z/VM’s CMS1 despite the fact that CMS may require them to install z/VM.
ICE1: Interconnect Communication Element. Originally introduced on top-end ES/9000s, the part of the CEC which controls data movement between expanded storage, the channel subsystem, and the SCE – the big thick pipe into the heart of the machine. With the initial releases of the ES/9000 it was little more than a very fast switch which takes over some of the SCE’s work, and provided increased parallelism and contention relief.
Iceberg: Long rumored and much-hyped DASD subsystem from Storage Technology Corp, consisting of an array of up to 64 disks, complete with its own controller. To the mainframe, Iceberg looks like a 3990 controller. Formal announcement was in January 1992, but shipment dates kept slipping, and the first customer beta site went live mid 1993. Volume shipments started at the beginning of 1994. As from June 1996 IBM took over marketing of Iceberg under the soubriquet RAMAC Virtual Array Storage.
ICETOOL: Utility included with DFSORT and introduced March 1991. Provides existing DFSORT functionality in an easier statement format, along with new capabilities. One operation in ICETOOL replaces several in standard DFSORT.
ICF1: Inter-systems Communications Function. Software on the iSeries 400 providing support for user communications programs. Supports LU6.2, SNA Upline to CICS/IMS1, BSC, async. Key to the use of iSeries 400 in a network.
ICKDSF: Device Support Facility. Free IBM utility program for z/OS, z/VM and VSE/ESA, used for formatting DASD and for other media maintenance processing. Like EREP, ordering varies by operating system. DSF is an element of z/OS, but is a separately licensed product for z/VM.
Icon1: A symbol or representation. Anything or anybody uncritically admired according to the dictionary. Usually used with the first meaning to refer to the symbols used in the user interfaces for PCs in which little pictures are used in preference to words (e.g., a picture of a folder is used to represent a subdirectory). There is little benefit to the user in this approach since the pictures are usually completely unfathomable; however, the vendor benefits, because it provides an excuse for not publishing local language versions of software, which would be necessary if words rather than icons were used.
Icon2: A public domain multi-platform programming language written and supported at the University of Arizona by Ralph Griswold, based on his experience as prime author of the SNOBOL series of languages at Bell Labs. The compiler, interpreter and run-time system are all written in C, and the language syntax is based on the C language. But there the similarity ends, as what can take years to write in C can often be done in a week in Icon. Since development of the language is done on Unix, new releases appear there first, but a group of dedicated followers quickly port each new release to their favorite platform. Unfortunately, the z/OS implementer is no longer given the time by his vendor employer, so the z/OS implementation, complete with ISPF services, has not been updated for some years, but still works nicely, though is not currently available.
ICPF: ImagePlus Capture Facility/2. LAN-based client/server extension to ImagePlus for high-volume document capture and indexing. Withdrawn September 1997.
ICPI: Individual Computer Products International. Company set up by IBM Europe in June 1992, as a fully-owned subsidiary to sell the Ambra AT clones. ICPI didn’t use the IBM name for its products, on its letterhead, or in its marketing – a strange approach, since the only worthwhile selling feature of the ho-hum range of products was that it was sold by an IBM company. To no-one’s great surprise – apart from IBM’s – ICPI went belly-up in February 1994. Ambra fared little better, and was gone worldwide by July 1994.
ICU2: International Components for Unicode. Option 39 of OS/400. A C and C++ library providing Unicode support and internationalization utilities for writing global applications in ILE programming languages.
IDE: Integrated Drive Electronics. An interface standard that has remained extremely popular for hard disk drives on workstations, despite competition, most notably from SCSI. Internal CD-ROM and CD-RW drives also use it. Technically, current technology is EIDE, but most people still call it IDE.
IDL: Interface Definition Language. A formal language designed for specifying object interfaces and parameters in a language-neutral format. Various different IDLs exist; COM, CORBA, and RPC all have their own. CORBA IDL has been accepted as an international standard by ISO.
IDLC: Integrated Data Link Control. IBM’s implementation of the ITU-T Q.922 standard or link access procedure extended. It is a full duplex high-level data link control protocol. IDLC can support point-to-point workstation connections over a full duplexWAN.
IDNX: Integrated Digital Network Exchange. The 973x family of network management workstations cum multiplexers, based on PS/2, and produced by IBM in conjunction with Network Equipment Technologies Inc. Main use is for bandwidth management of T1 lines and other wide-area backbone networks. Withdrawn December 1997.
IDRC: Improved Data Recording Capability. IBMspeak for the enhancements to the 3480 (July 1989) which increased capacity up to fivefold and tape subsystem performance by up to 70%. Works by compressing the data in the tape control unit before writing it to the cartridge, and decompressing it when it’s read back by the program. This technique has the advantage over traditional software compression of not using CPU cycles for the compression. However, it has the disadvantage of transferring the uncompressed data across the channel, which quite possibly uses as many CPU cycles as would software compression. IDRC is standard on the 3490 and late 3480s, and is available as an upgrade on old 3480s. Not available for Magstar.
IDS: Intrusion Detection System. Both a generic term and product name for several security products that detect, prevent and react to unauthorized network activity, especially from hackers. For example, IDS is the new name for Cisco NetRanger.
IE1: Microsoft Internet Explorer. Free Web browser. Widely used.
IEBCOPY: z/OS Library Copy utility for copying members of a partitioned dataset (PDS), unloading a PDS into a sequential dataset and back again. Unloading is especially useful for copying a PDS to tape.
IEBUPDTE: z/OS Update Dataset utility. Can only be used for PDS members and sequential datasets with fixed length records no greater than 80 bytes in length. The ISPF/PDF Editor is on-line and much more flexible, so IEBUPDATE is rarely seen in anything written in the last 20 years.
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission. International standards body.
IEEE: Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers. American professional body with substantial impact on standards for communications. IEEE’s 802 committee has set standards for LANs which include IBM’s token passing scheme and the Ethernet-like CSMA/CD system. See 802.1/2, 802.3, 802.4, 802.5, 802.3z.
IEFBR14: The z/OS Do Nothing utility. Believe it or not, today it is the most popular of all the original IBM utilities. And it is much more complex than most people will lead you to believe. More than just a one line Assembler program that branches to the return address passed it by z/OS in register (GPR) 14, it also, wait for it, clears register 15 to set a zero return code. And hear, all these years, you had been told it was so simple, just one line of code. All kidding aside, it is quite useful, most frequently to write JCLDD2 statements to preallocate or delete a file or something similar, unrelated to the running of any program. Since the basis of JCL is a job step, which requires an EXEC statement, IEFBR14 is the perfect thing to execute: a program that does nothing. It can also be useful when testing DD statements when you do not wish to run the program they will be used for. You have to wonder if the author of IEFBR14 gets a monthly royalty cheque based on frequency of use.
IER: Internal/Instruction Execution Rate. A measure of computer performance based on the time taken to perform a single machine operation. Not a great deal of use except for comparing two processors with identical repertoires of machine instructions.
IERS: IBM Security Services Internet Emergency Response Service. March 2001, It became the Managed Security Services group within IBM Business Continuity and Recovery Services.
IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force. An open community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It controls the Request for Comment (RFC) process which can lead to Internet standards.
I format: Information format. A format used for information transfer.
IFS1: Interactive File Sharing. Obsolete system that allowed a few VSAM files to be shared under z/VM.
IFS3: Integrated File System. Feature on the iSeries 400, first announced in June 1995, which allows data structures other than native iSeries 400 ones (e.g., PC files) to be stored in a consistent fashion on the iSeries 400.
IGES: Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. NIST standard for transferring engineering data between CAD/CAM systems. Available for AIX, SGI IRIX, SunOS and Windows NT. Withdrawn from z/OS and z/VM August 1997.
IHF: Image Handling Facility. Utility for handling images to be incorporated into compound documents. Runs in z/VM CMS and z/OS TSO environments. Withdrawn July 1995.
IHMP: IBM Hub Management Program. For managing a small LAN of 8250 hubs. Available for AIX, PC-DOS workstations and for Windows as the Intelligent Hub Manager for Windows. The PC-DOS implementation was announced February 1994 and replaced August 1995 by Nways Manager for Windows. IHMP/6000 is the IBM AIX NetView Hub Management Program/6000. Announced May 1994 and replaced April 1995 by Intelligent Hub Manager for AIX. See Intelligent Hub Manager for information on the Windows version of IHMP, as well as the replacement for IHMP/6000.
IIA: Information Interchange Architecture. An architecture (announced mid 1990) supporting advanced functions for IBM office products. Part of SAA. It’s a functional superset of ODA incorporating SGML, MO:DCA, GOCA, IOCA and FOCA. Announced March 1990.
IIOP: Internet Inter-ORB Protocol. A OMG standard for CORBA-based object internetworking across IP-based networks that is supported by all compliant ORBs. IIOP is the TCP/IP implementation of GIOP; ORBs using IIOP and IORs are able to interoperate. RMI can now operate on top of IIOP as well as JRMP, allowing RMI and CORBA to interoperate. IIOP is also required by EJB. IIOP is supported by z/OSCICS TS, AIX1, TPF, WebSphere Application Server and ENOVIA.
IIS1: Microsoft Internet Information Services. It runs the Web applications on a Web site. Beginning with Windows 2000 Server, IIS is no longer a separate product, but a part of the Windows Server operating systems.
IISR: Integrated Information Storage and Retrieval. z/OS and z/VM software (announced July 1991) for managing and archiving information from multiple sources. Data is system independent, may be of any type (text, image, etc), and is stored in the format in which it was created in the CDF repository. IISR supports indexing, storage, and retrieval. Withdrawn September 1993.
IKE: Internet Key Exchange. Infrastructure that permits encryption keys to be automatically and securely created, distributed, and refreshed according to the protocol requirements of IPSec. Used to provide VPN support in AIX1.
ILC: Initial License Charge. A charge made when a product is first licensed. IBM abandoned the practice when it realized that ILCs are a major disincentive to the acquisition of a product.
ILE: Integrated Language Environment. Programming architecture cum paradigm for the iSeries 400. Introduced in April 1993 primarily as a way of providing decent C support (the first AS/400 C compiler worked by emulating an RPG program). Subsequently, ILEs have been added for C++, RPG, COBOL, and CL/400.
ILM Management Tool: IBM License Manager Management Tool. Used on z/OS to change license certificate values, enable/disable priced optional features, discontinue products, change the serial number or model type of the machine to which a product is licensed, and increase/decrease a defined capacity (the portion of the machine on which you want to run a product).
IMA: Inventory Maintenance Assistance. AS/400 utility which maintains details of the system configuration in order to facilitate the ordering and installation of new hardware and software from IBM. Obsolete.
ImagEdit: PC-DOS and early Windows (pre-3.0) program for processing images. Withdrawn March 1991.
ImagePlus: IBM Content Manager ImagePlus for z/OS (CMIP) and Content Manager ImagePlus Workstation Program (IWPM). High volume document imaging and folder management middleware, integrated with MQSeries Workflow and Content Manager OnDemand. Includes a Folder Application Facility (FAF), Object Distribution Manager (IODM) and APIs for integration with CICS, IMS, Windows and OS/2 applications. z/OS Object Access Method (OAM) manages the storage of images. It even recognizes hand printing via OCR. IWPM provides the Windows and OS/2 desktop component for both CMIP and Content Manager for iSeries 400.
ImageSystem: Transaction image processing system developed by Image Business Systems (IBS) and sold by IBM. Comprises PC RT or RS/6000 acting as a server on a TRN, and PCs as workstations. The Sybase RDBMS is a pre-requisite on the server. Obsolete.
IMAP: Internet Mail Access Protocol.
IMS/ESA: Information Management System/Extended System Architecture. Renamed to simply IMS.
IMS/FF: IMS Full Function.
IMS2: Internet Management Specification. A standard for managing Internet applications which SunSoft and IBM’s Tivoli started to draw up early 1996. IMS defines a standard interface for configuring, monitoring, and controlling access to the Internet.
IMSADF II: Information Management System Application Development Facility Two. Announced November 1977, an application generator for applications that use IMS DB and IMS TM. Just because no one has written a new application with it lately does not mean that the need for IMSADF II has disappeared. Y2K focused attention on it, selling a lot of copies IBM IMS/ESA ADF Tool Pak for MVS, announced September 1996, and withdrawn September 2001. But many organizations also used Y2K as an excuse to rid themselves of IMSADF II completely.
IMSASAP II: Information Management System Monitor Summary and Systems Analysis Program Two. Performance analysis and tuning aid for IMS DB and IMS TM. Replaced by IMS Performance Analyzer November 1997.
IMS Automation Option: z/OSNetView application, announced August 1991, which controls multiple local or remote IMS TM regions from a single point. Can be used to automate such functions as start-up, shut-down, and recovery. Replaced by AOC/MVS IMS Auto Feature.
IMS Client Server: Windows and OS/2 software which provides a client graphical user interface to IMS applications from an OS/2 or Windows workstation. Announced as an OS/2 product September 1991, with Windows support announced in October 1993 and VisualAge in July 1994. When first announced, the product was known as IMS Client Server/2, then renamed IBM IMS Client Server for Windows, despite the fact it still supported OS/2. See also IMS CS Toolkit.
IMS CS Toolkit: IMS Client/Server Toolkit. Set of utilities and application generators written by MultiSoft and sold by IBM. Allows GUI front-ends to be put on IMS 3270 applications. An add-on to IMS Client Server. IBM support ended February 1996.
IMS DB: Information Management System Database Manager. IBM’s venerable (introduced in 1968) large system hierarchical DBMS. In casual conversation, either IMS1 DB or IMS TM may be referred to simply as IMS without anyone complaining. Following the introduction of DB2, it was assumed, both inside and outside IBM, that IMS DB would die a slow death as DB2’s performance improved to approach that of IMS DB. But, it never happened, mainly because of the number of major IMS-based applications at large organizations worldwide. Once IBM realized this, a major effort was made to keep both IMS DB and IMS TM up to date with the latest trends, such as Web enablement, though nobody proposed making it into a relational DBMS. See also HALDB.
IMS Performance Analyzer: IMS TM and IMS DB resource and performance management, and database availability. Part of the Database Performance Management Tools which are, in turn, part of the IBM Data Management Tools.
IMS TM: Information Management System Transaction Manager. A very powerful and facility-rich TP monitor available under z/OS, mainly to support applications using the IMS DB database system, but also supporting VSAM and DB2. For a long time, it looked as if IMS/DC (IMS TM’s original name) would be relegated to a minor role, and that CICS was to become the only serious IBM offering in the TP monitor field. However, IBM has now renamed IMS/DC as IMS TM, which signaled a major effort on IBM’s part to keep it up to date with the latest trends, such as Web enablement, following the realization that DB2 was not going to put IMS DB and IMS TM out of business.
IN: Information Network. IBM’s worldwide VANS. Began in 1978 as a remote time-sharing service, and grew until it comprised a backbone of very high-speed trunks offering dial-up access across the world. Widely used for EDI. Part of the IBM Global Network sold to AT&T in December 1998.
Inbound: Data that is received from the network.
Independence Series: A range of IBM products that help people with disabilities. Home Page Reader is a self-voicing Web browser. ViaVoice is speech recognition software. SpeechViewer III is a speech therapy tool for people with speech, language or hearing impairments. It converts speech into visual patterns to help people learn to speak. IBM partners with other companies on these and other products in the Independence Series that cover Vision, Mobility, Speech/Hearing, Cognitive/Dyslexia and Education.
Industrial computer: A more rugged version of a computer used in harsh environments. The case may be clad in waterproof rubber and the keyboard sealed to prevent liquid spills from interfering with the electrical contact that takes place whenever a key is struck.
Inferno: A distributed embedded operating system developed at Lucent’s Bell Labs and now owned by Vita Nuova of York, England. In Inferno, all resources on a network are represented as files and accessed with basic file operations.
Info/Man: IBM Information/Management. z/OS and z/VM software problem, change and configuration management software. The z/VM version was withdrawn August 1996. But the z/OS version was renamed several times before becoming Tivoli Information Management for z/OS in July 2001.
infoMarket: An Internet information service created by IBM late 1995, providing information services to its Internet customers. Initially it provided free information services, but the intention was to develop secure technologies (e.g., the Cryptolope) which would allow vendors of high-value information services to sell their products across the Internet. Sadly, it all ended in about a year and infoMarket remains a historical footnote. See also infoSage.
Infoprint: Beginning in September 1996, all IBM printers got the name InfoPrint. It also spilled over to a few pieces of printer-related software.
Infoprint Server for iSeries: Software that adapts output to the iSeries 400 environment so that it can be printed. Such as transforming PostScript, PCL, PDF2, GIF, TIFF and JPEG data into iSeries formats.
Infoprint Server for z/OS: An optional, separately priced feature of z/OS. Consolidates print workloads from many servers into a central z/OS print server. Formerly known as the OS/390 Printer Server.
Information/MVS: z/OS system, announced May 1983, which maintains z/OS manuals (held in Library/MVS) in a machine readable form. Withdrawn December 1997 after IBM began offering all z/OS unlicensed manuals available on their Web site, initially with a Web-based BookManager GUI.
Information/System: A collection of IBM technical data wrapped in software that could help find the relevant piece for the problem at hand in a customer mainframe site. z/OS version replaced by Info/Man December 1994. The z/VM version was withdrawn August 1996. The VSE/ESA version was withdrawn October 1990.
Information Catalog: Part of DB2 Warehouse Manager. A common repository for metadata about the objects within the data warehouse that can help users find, understand and access available data through the Information Catalog Manager. Information Catalog can be populated through metadata interchange with the DB2 Warehouse Center and other tools including QMF, Lotus1-2-3, Brio, Business Objects, Cognos, Excel, Hyperion.
Information Center: Information Center. A focal point within an organization for supporting end users. It started life as an IBM marketing ploy for selling lots of mainframe hardware via the DP department to support professional users on PCs. It evolved to try and support end-users on any platforms they happen to have. But the whole concept is ancient history now.
Information Warehouse: IBMspeak for the notion (announced September 1991) of a framework for accessing data wherever it exists within the enterprise. Part of the idea is to minimize the number of access methods users have to learn to get at their data – ultimately it should come down to SQL and not much else. Not as simple as it seems, since IBM expects the notion to cover data held in DB2 databases, VSAM files, OS/2 and DOS files, DEC databases, Sybase or Oracle under Unix, and so on. The key enabler is DRDA. Other components of the Information Warehouse include products, standards, and tools. Also known as the Data Warehouse. The spec was published in March 1993. See also DataHub.
Informix: Database and language software for the Unix environment. In the early 1990s it was sold by IBM for the pSeries.
infoSage: An IBM on-line news delivery service announced in February 1996. Provided subscribers with news stories ranging from news and business information to entertainment and sports. Information was tailored to suit individual needs with a choice in the method of delivery – via a personalized Web page on the IBM infoSage Web site, or Internet e-mail. Stopped accepting subscriptions November 27, 1996. According to then IBM Chairman of the Board Lou Gerstner, because it was competing with IBM’s own customers. See also infoMarket.
InfoWindow: Host terminals. Support a variety of hosts, including eserverzSeries 900 and iSeries 400. Although a few models of the 3153 are still available to satisfy customers who are already committed to the InfoWindow family, the InfoWindow and InfoWindow II workstation families are essentially obsolete. Other models, all withdrawn, include InfoWindow: 3471347234763477 4055 (touch screen); InfoWindow II: 3481348234833486348734883489. The obsolete InfoWindow Control Program was PC-DOS software provided an API and language interface that allowed PC-DOS applications to access the InfoWindow system. See also 315x, 3470.
Infrastructure and Systems Management Services: Part of IBM Global Services that includes four groups: Infrastructure Resource Management Services; Systems Management Consulting and Design; Performance Management, Testing and Scalability Services; and Tivoli Services.
Infrastructure Resource Management: See IRM.
Infrastructure Resource Management Services: Part of IBM Infrastructure and Systems Management Services. Aims to provide IRM functions including: purchase, install, track and configure technologies; train and support end users; service and update hardware and software; and replace and dispose of obsolete equipment.
Insider: A computer security term for anyone authorized to use an organization’s computing resources.
Instant Messaging: Real-time computer-based written interaction between two people. The textual equivalent of the telephone conversation, as opposed to e-mail (which is the electronic equivalent of putting a paper letter in the mail).
Institute for Advanced Commerce: An IBM institute designed to explore the impact of emerging technologies on the future of business and commerce. The Institute began operations in January 1998 in IBM’s T J Watson Research Center. Integrated into the Institute is a business research center that conducts formal studies on the changing nature of work, industry structure, commerce, and technology.
Insure-commerce: IBM initiative to introduce secure, electronic commerce and information clearing houses across the Internet for the insurance industry. Announced November 1996 and nothing has been heard about it since. See also Energy Network Exchange, PetroConnect.
Integrated Cryptographic Feature: Feature on water-cooled ES/9000s replaced by cryptographic coprocessors on the eserverzSeries 900. Hardware is a tamper-proof TCM1 (IBM’s first application-oriented co-processor) and a key entry unit, and software is ICSF. The key entry unit is used to enter DEA cryptographic keys into the TCM using a special cable (also tamper-proof). ICRF supports up to 1,000 IMS FastPath transactions per second, and a single ICRF can support up to seven PR/SM partitions. ICRF supports the DES, which means that IBM will be heavily restricted as to the people it can sell it to (DES devices are munitions and hence are subject to US government export restrictions).
Integrated Facility for Linux: Introduced on the System/390 G5, this optional eserver zSeries 900 facility adds dedicated Linux processing capability to an existing system without increasing the system’s size from a software charges point of view.
Integrated Netfinity Server: An Intel processor and PC memory packaged as a motherboard that fits inside an AS/400, allowing it to run Windows Server operating systems and the applications that run on them. Replaced by the Integrated xSeries Server for iSeries.
Integrated PC Server: A feature of the AS/400 that allowed it to emulate the Intel-based workstation environment, and run Windows and OS/2. Replaced by the Integrated Netfinity Server February 1999. See also FSIOP.
Integrated System Coherent: an SCE function
Integrated xSeries Server for iSeries: A PC server inside an iSeries 400, allowing it to run Windows Server operating systems and the applications that run on them, along side standard OS/400 applications. Actually a motherboard that fits inside the iSeries 400 and comes complete with Intel processor, memory, video and LAN adapters, and USB ports.
Integrity: Measures whether something, typically data, is intact, with nothing missing; uncorrupted.
Intel: The chip company which designs and makes the chips used in the vast majority of PCs supported by Microsoft operating systems, which, ironically, is still known as the IBM standard. Between them, Intel and Microsoft own the PC standard. In the mid 1980s IBM bought a large lump of Intel (reportedly to ensure continuity of supplies of PC chips), but sold out most of its interest after a couple of years – in hindsight, not one of IBM’s better decisions. IBM established an agreement with Intel in the early 1980s which allowed IBM to clone Intel chips (but not to make more than 20% of its own requirements). Mid 1993, this cozy arrangement was beginning to look strained when IBM announced that it was developing clean room versions of the 486 and Pentium, which it would be using itself and also selling in the merchant semiconductor market in head-on competition with Intel. But, these days, Intel Inside is as important a slogan for most IBM PCs as it is for its competitors. See also Cyrix.
Intelligent Decision Server: LAN-based information analysis software designed for setting up decision-support applications at the ground-level of an enterprise. Initially only available for OS/2 but Windows added soon after. Announced October 1996. Withdrawn February 2000.
Intelligent Hub Manager: Software to manage LANs built with 8250 and 8260hubs. Intelligent Hub Manager for AIX was replaced by Nways Campus Manager ATM for AIX March 1996. Intelligent Hub Manager for Windows was announced March 1994 and replaced by Nways Manager for Windows November 1995.
Intelligent Miner: An intelligent agent-based data mining system that exploits a number of presentation and modeling techniques, including neural networks, to interactively perform pattern analysis on large amounts of data and to highlight patterns and features of interest. Intelligent Miner is used in IBM’s Personal Shopping Assistant. Announced April 1996, supporting DB2 and flat files on AIX1, z/OS and OS/400 hosts with AIX, Windows 95 and NT clients. And an Oracle and Sybase data extract import facility. In September 1999, the z/OS version was renamed IBM DB2 Intelligent Miner.
Intelligent Resource Director: Introduced as part of z/OS in October 2000. Allows WLM to direct PR/SM to enable or disable processor capacity for any LPAR within a cluster, without human intervention, based on workload.
IntelliStation: Family of high-power enterprise workstations from IBM. Support symmetric multiprocessing and are highly network oriented. Announced March 1997.
Interchange Services: IBM Interchange Services for e-business. The rebranding of IBM EDI Services in August 2000. Services include commerce engines, business integration services, outsourcing services, trading community services, education and consulting.
InterConnect for Lotus Notes: IBM InterConnect for Lotus Notes. NotesVANS on the IBM Global Network. Allowed users to use Notes without having to invest in the infrastructure and personnel required to maintain a private wide area network (WAN). Introduced June 1996. Disappeared when AT&T acquired the IBM Global Network in December 1998.
Interleaf: DTP software vendor. IBM sold several Interleaf software products, including Publisher. But, by August 1993, it had all been withdrawn from marketing.
Intermix: AIX job submission software announced February 1994. Allows AIX1 and other Unix systems to submit jobs and access data on z/OS and Unix systems across a TCP/IP network. Withdrawn December 1996.
International classes: Technology developed by IBM’s Taligent subsidiary. It is designed to enable applications to adapt dates, currencies, numbers, and text to fit respective country formats automatically, so that users see the same application, unchanged, in their own languages. Available in three versions, C, C++, and Java, each of which supports 38 languages in 44 countries. Licensed by JavaSoft, Netscape, and Oracle amongst others.
Internet: The global network of networks sponsored by the US government that provides a virtual space for millions of connected users. Mid 1994 it began to move from the academic/research world into the commercial world. Includes facilities for e-mail, database browsing and access, and file transfer. Often used synonymously with information superhighway, although more strictly it’s just an implementation of the superhighway concept. From early 1995 IBM joined in the hype, and has been Web enabling ever since. See World Wide Web.
Internet2: Son of Internet. Still just a promise despite many years of research by the Internet2 Consortium. There are more than 185 universities and research labs, including IBM’s, involved in developing a much faster and better Internet. See also NGI, TEN-34.
Inter-Personal Computer: Machine promised by Lou Gerstner in late 1995 which would provide a low-cost, network-oriented terminal – low-price, probably running Windows, probably floppy-diskless (to prevent users loading games and viruses), and designed purely as a network terminal for business applications. Eventually emerged as the Network Station. See also Network Computer.
InterSession: CUA-compliant VTAM session manager marketed at one time by Isogon Corporation. Works under MVS, VSE, and VM, and includes e-mail, on-line maintenance of user profiles, automated log-on/log-off, etc.
Interwoven TeamXpress: Interwoven TeamXpress, WebSphere Edition. Manages Web content. Used together with WebSphere Application Server and WebSphere Personalization, it can build and deliver personalized Web sites. It is also integrated with Content Manager and Enterprise Information Portal.
Intranet: A network based on Internet technology, but designed for internal use within a single organization (normally either physically separate from the Internet or connected via secure firewalls). According to some sources, intranet business among large companies is growing faster than Internet applications, particularly in the US. The real benefit of intranets is that they offer the advantages of Internet software innovations (Java-style applets, Web-based hypertext links and search facilities, etc) without the security risks or the obvious drawbacks of providing unrestricted Web surfing at the desktop. See also Network Computer.
INTRDR: Internal Reader. z/OS logical device which can be used to submit batch jobs without performing an explicit JES job submission. Also used internally by operating system components.
Intrusion detection: To discover unauthorized access to computing resources.
Inventory Scout: AIX tool used to determine the correct components to ship when an MES upgrade is ordered.
INZUTILB: The utility used to unload from the DB2 table. High performance may unload ABEND0C4 with possible data loss when unloading from a view which is not supported by HPU (and therefore must be passed to DB2) and the DB2 variable is set to YES.
IOCA: Image Object Content Architecture. Defines the structure and content of raster image data, including the location and setting of pixels, information for compressing images, etc. Used in ImagePlus and OS/2 Image Support. Supports ITU-T group IV compression algorithms.
IOCDS: Input/Output Configuration DataSet. The z/OS, z/VM and VSE/ESA dataset which specifies the I/O devices that can be connected to a mainframe.
IOCP: Input/Output Configuration Program. The z/OS, z/VM and VSE/ESA program which describes the I/O configuration to the channel subsystem.
IOCS: Input/Output Control System. A group of VSE/ESA routines for handling transfer of data between memory and storage devices. IOCS has two components: LIOCS (Logical Input/Output Control System) and PIOCS (Physical Input/Output Control System).
IODF: Input/Output Definition File. The I/O definition file (IODF) is a VSAM linear data set that is built and maintained by HCD.
IOGEN: Input/Output GENeration. The process of describing the I/O configuration to an z/OS I/O supervisor. To carry out a traditional I/O Gen you used to have to shut down z/OS, run IOCP, and then re-start the machine. Dynamic I/O reconfiguration got rid of the need for this. See also HCD.
IOS1: I/O Supervisor. z/OS software responsible for execution of channel programs.
IOS2: Inter-Organizational Systems.
IP1: Internet Protocol. An Internet protocol that routes data through networks. IP acts as an intermediary between the higher protocol layers and the physical network. It does not provide error recovery or flow control. See also TCP/IP.
IP2: Instruction Processor. Pretty much what used to be called the ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit).
ip3270: A direct alternative to tn3270(E) that is supported by Microsoft SNA Server and Novell NetWare for SAA, whereby gateway-specific TCP/IP protocol can be used for SNA access between the client and the server. One of the key advantages of this approach, as opposed to tn3270, is that it supports LU6.2-based transactions.
ip5250: A direct alternative to tn5250 that is supported by Microsoft’s SNA Server and Novell’s NetWare for SAA, whereby gateway-specific TCP/IP protocol can be used for SNA access between the client and the server. One of the key advantages of this approach, as opposed to tn5250, is that it supports LU6.2-based transactions.
IPA2: Interprocedural analysis.
IP Assist: Internet Protocol Assist. One of the five components of QDIO. Moves IP-related compute-intensive functions from the eserverzSeries 900 processor to the OSA-Express feature. This includes Media Access Control (MAC1) handling, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) function, packet filtering, building and maintaining a table of IP addresses to be used for packet routing, and IP Multicast.
IPC: InterProcess Communication. The process by which programs synchronize activities and communicate data between themselves.
IPCC: IBM Personal Computer Co. Company set up in September 1992 to market all IBM-branded PCs. IPCC, which at least had the brains to use the IBM name (unlike ICPI) is responsible for the design, manufacturing, and marketing of all IBM personal computer products. Scrapped in the late 1990s. PCs are now part of the Personal and Printing Systems Group. See also Ambra, ICPI, ValuePoint.
IPCS1: Interactive Problem Control System. A component of z/VM that facilitates on-line problem management, interactive problem diagnosis, on-line debugging for disk-resident CP abend dumps, problem tracking, and problem reporting. Replaced by DVF.
IPDS: Intelligent Printer DataStream. An IBM protocol for data sent to APA page printers. Analogous to the PostScript page description language used by DTP1 products such as PageMaker. IPDS is part of SAA’s CCS1, and replaces RFTDCA. Also known as AFP/IPDS. Extended subsets of IPDS are incorporated in IBM’s Object Content Architectures (OCAs).
IPDT: Integrated Processing of Data and Text. Obsolete system (the functionality was incorporated into OfficeVision/MVS and ASF1) enabling users to integrate data and text processing on a single workstation. Designed for clerical staff working with data displays and DP applications programs. Ran on mainframe machines under z/OS and VSE/ESA, and 8100/DPPX.
IPFO: ImagePlus Intelligent Forms Facility/2. OCR and forms recognition and indexing software. Enhanced May 1996 to recognize hand printing along with the usual forms and machine-printed text. Withdrawn September 1997.
IPI: Intelligent Peripherals Interface. IBM version of IPI-3 – an international standard for peripheral interfaces.
IPLA: International Program License Agreement. A specific IBM software contract form.
IPMS: InterPersonal Messaging System. X.400 mechanism used to convey messages from one person to another, and allowing the data to be correctly interpreted at the destination. Available on IBM EDI1 systems.
IP Multicast: The ability to send and receive IP packets simultaneously sent to multiple IP addresses. This is not referring to e-mail sent to a distribution list, but to a broadcast model for things like audio/video. Huge savings are possible by sending a single packet to all listeners, rather than the same packet repeatedly to each listener. The downside is that listeners who miss or receive corrupted packets cannot request a retransmission. Not to mention the fact that it is a real-time, rather than an on-demand, approach. Issues surrounding listeners joining and leaving during the broadcast have been resolved, however. IP Multicast is supported fairly broadly, including z/VM.
IPO: Installation Productivity Option. IBM’s first successful attempt at packaging system software to simplify installation and update. The name disappeared about the time its acronym became popular in the financial world (Initial Public Offering).
IP PrintWay: Internet Protocol PrintWay. Routes JES2 and JES3 print to TCP/IP printers. An optional, separately priced feature of z/OS that was first announced as a feature of PSF/MVS in September 1996.
IPSec: Internet Protocol Security. A network layer (i.e., layer 3) security that can be used to realize authentication, integrity and data privacy between two IP1 entities. Heavily used to implement VPNs. IBM is developing IPSec compliant products as part of its deal with RSA Security.
IPSO: Integrated Product and Services Offering. A combined software and services offering from IBM (announced in the UK July 1991). In the deathless prose of the IBM announcement, addresses customer concerns for a successful implementation by IBM sharing much of the risk and using its skilled resources in delivering the solution. Disappeared without a trace.
IP-switching: A strategic set of methodologies endorsed by IBM, Cisco, and other networking vendors, for increasing the throughput of IP data transfers by eliminating the need to route each packet at Layer 3, and instead using pre-established connections at Layer 2 to expedite packet forwarding.
IRLM: IMS/VS Resource Lock Manager, aka Inter Region Lock Manager. z/OS subsystem used by IMS1 and DB2 to control communications and database locking (it controls integrity locking in DB2). See also Latch.
Ironmonger: IBMspeak (usually derogatory) for a hardware (iron) specialist.
ISAM1: Information Systems Account Marketing. At one time the organizational segment of IBM selling computer systems to large accounts. The ISAM/ISM1 organization was replaced by an organization based on geographical regions.
ISAM2: Indexed Sequential Access Method. Method of file access in which a stored index contains the address of a group of records. Forever in need of reorganization. Replaced by VSAM in 1973, but survives in odd backwaters. ISAM datasets cannot reside on SMS-managed volumes in z/OS.
ISAPI: The Microsoft equivalent of NSAPI. An interface provided on Microsoft HTTP servers which allows other processes to be invoked by the browser client as an alternative to CGI. This has some performance advantages but is not supported by all HTTP servers.
ISC1: Inter-System Communication. A general form of mainframe communication and resource-sharing between host applications using the LU6 protocols. Under VTAM, ISC is a facility used with CICS and/or IMS TM for shipping transactions to another CICS or IMS TM system for execution. Uses LU6.1 under IMS and CICS and LU6.2 under CICS. ISC allows multiple copies of CICS to run simultaneously to enable multi-engine CECs to be used effectively.
ISC-3: Inter-System Channel.
ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network. Generic term describing the ITU-T digital circuit switching services for both voice and data. Available worldwide, but never really gained the kind of popularity everyone was predicting. And now doomed to die a slow death at the hands of DSL, cable modem and similar higher speed yet reasonably-priced technologies. Also known as Narrow-ISDN (N-ISDN) to distinguish it from Broadband ISDN.
iSeries 400: The eserver series based on, and replacing, the AS/400. According to IBM, the i stands for intelligent integration. Based on copper and SOI2 technology, it runs any combination of ported Unix applications, AS/400, Windows, Java, Domino and soon Linux applications concurrently. Some models are Dedicated Servers for Domino (DSD).
ISF: Inter-System Facilities. z/VM package which enabled up to four VM/HPO systems to share mini-disks and spool files. In essence it was a rather crude first go at providing the ability to create clusters of processors. Announced January 1987. Withdrawn December 1997 because it was not Year 2000-ready.
ISM2: Information Service Management Ltd. IBM’s South African distributor. IBM pulled out of South Africa itself in 1987, leaving the market to ISM (which was set up by ex-IBMers). Mid 1994 IBM bought a controlling stake in ISM, which became ISG a year later.
ISM4: Information Systems Management Canada. aka ISMC. A former IBM Canada subsidiary that concentrated mostly in Outsourcing, often in joint ventures with telephone companies. Absorbed into IBM Global Services Consulting. The only exception was the Province of British Columbia joint venture that ended up as part of the local telephone company (TELUS) rather than IBM.
ISMC: IBM Software Manufacturing Company. Absorbed back into the Software Division.
ISMF: Interactive Storage Management Facility. Interactive ISPF-based tool for z/OS storage administrators which provides facilities to manage Data Classes, Storage Classes, Management Classes, and Storage Groups. Can also be used by regular folks much as they would Option 3.4 (Dataset List) of ISPF/PDF; ISMF is more clumsy but does provide some information and features less readily available in ISPF/PDF. Part of DFSMS.
ISO: International Standards Organization. Geneva-based body responsible for developing communications standards in conjunction with the ITU-T. Represented in the US by ANSI. ISO looks after the OSI model.
Isochronous: Generic term for running in real-time.
Isochronous Ethernet: Version of Ethernet (aka IsoEnet) sponsored by IBM and National Semiconductor for multimedia communications – voice, video, image and data – at up to 16Mbps.
ISP: Internet Service Provider.
ISPF: Interactive System Productivity Facility. Menu and screen management system that has only ever been popular on z/OSTSO, but has been offered, at one time or another, on VSE/ESAICCF and z/VMCMS1. There have also been both IBM and non-IBM workstation versions. And even a (non-IBM) Unix version. Though, arguably, they mainly concentrated on providing the PDF1 component. ISPF first saw the light of day in 1974 as SPF. Provides facilities for developing and running menu-driven dialog systems on 3270 terminals and, more recently, workstations. ISPF services can be accessed using WSP/2. ISPF is an element of z/OS. See also ISPF/PDF.
ISPF/PDF: ISPF/Program Development Facility. ISPF facility providing access to application development services for end-users and programmers. Incorporates C and REXX programming support, and some support for programmable workstations. See also LMF, SCLM.
ISQL: Interactive SQL.
ISSC: Integrated Systems Solutions Corp. Company set up by IBM Corp in May 1991 to run systems integration and outsourcing contracts, which previously were run by the Systems Integration Division. Probably set up to meet the conditions of the 1956 anti-trust decree which said that IBM had to operate any bureau services at arms-length. With the Consent Decree fading into history and Lou Gerstner’s dislike of subsidiary companies, ISSC was absorbed into IBM Global Services. See also ISL.
ISV: Independent Software Vendor. A software vendor which isn’t part of and/or doesn’t belong to a hardware manufacturer.
ITAA: Information Technology Association of America. Formerly known as ADAPSO, ITAA is the dominant US trade association for the Information Technology (IT) industry: computers, software, telecommunications products and services, Internet and online services, systems integration and professional services. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, in the Washington, D.C. area.
Item Access Facility: z/OS software providing support for high volumes of coded data objects on optical media or low cost DASD (e.g., the 3390-9). The main target application is storage of print data, e.g., for archiving. Data is indexed for on-line access and selective printing. Can also be used to send data normally directed to COM devices to the 3995 optical disk. Announced January 1991. Withdrawn September 2001.
ITI: Information Technology Industry Council. A US trade association of which IBM is a member. Formerly CBEMA.
ITR: Internal Throughput Rate. IBM measure of internal processor performance expressed in terms of the number of transactions/jobs per second of processor busy time. Used by IBM to compare the performance of different processors – not as an absolute measure of performance, cf. MIPS, IER. See also ETR1.
ITSEC: IT Security Evaluation & Certification Scheme (U.K.).
ITSO: International Technical Support Organization. The bit of IBM which publishes those wonderful manuals, most notably Redbooks. The ITSO is part of the IBM Global Technical Support organization within IBM Global Sales and Distribution.
ITU: International Telecommunications Union. Founded in 1865 and based in Geneva, Switzerland, it became an agency of the United Nations in 1947 and has a membership of 184 countries, as well as a number of industry and government organizations. Its purpose is the coordination of worldwide communication standards, including frequency allocation and radio regulations. See also ITU-T.
ITU-T: International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication Standardization Sector. The sub-component of the ITU that is responsible for developing recommendations for telecommunications formerly handled by the CCITT.
IUCV: Inter-User Communications Vehicle. z/VM facility enabling programs in two virtual machines to talk to one another, and allowing workloads to be distributed across physical machines transparently.
IVF: Image View Facility. An ancient program product which enabled images digitized by the Scanmaster to be displayed on suitably featured 3270-type screens. IVF operated in conjunction with DISOSS/PS and the Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM). No longer marketed – replaced by IVU.
IVO: IBM Volume Offering/Orders. Part of the marketing Terms and Conditions of some software products.
Ivory letter: An IBM customer announcement letter.
IVPA: International Volume Purchase Agreement.
IVU: Image View Utility. Program Product which enabled scanned files created on the 3117-9 or 8815 scanners to be stored in DISOSS and viewed on high resolution workstations or suitably configured PCs. Replaced IVF. Obsolete.
IWPM: ImagePlus Workstation Program. The PC-DOS, Windows and OS/2 workstation software for ImagePlus. Allows users to capture, view, manipulate and print large volumes of documents. The last of it was withdrawn September 1997.
IWS1: Intelligent/Independent Workstation. Former IBMspeak for a networked PC or PS/2. Also known as Programmable WorkStation (PWS).
IWS2: Intelligent Workstation Support. Feature in VSE/ESA for linking PCs to a mainframe host.
IWS3: International Warranty Service. Allows IBM customers to obtain service for their products when they travel or move to a different country where IBM service is available.